CNC laser cutting machines are used to cut materials such as stainless steel, sheet metal or aluminum that will take a long time to be made by human hands. With this method, the metal can be formed faster and with higher quality.
CNC laser cutting technique is also used at the points where precision work is required. Since the error rate in laser cutting is almost zero, critical parts can be manufactured with CNC machines. Those looking for a guarantee in their work and those who like to work without risk may prefer the laser cutting technique.
So what exactly is CNC laser cutting technique? Where to use?
What is CNC Laser Cutting?
In its simplest form, CNC laser can be explained as directing a powerful laser beam with optical glasses and thus cutting the metal in the desired shape. Laser optics and CNC machine pre-loaded codes guide both the metal and the laser beam. Thus, various motifs can be embroidered on the material, and the metal can be cut perfectly and made ready for use.
At this point, it would be good to explain how laser beams work. The laser beam, which is the most important component of the CNC laser cutting method, is produced in a closed environment in the machine. During production, electrical resonances are used and the beam is exposed. Apart from resonance, help can be obtained from lamps suitable for the purpose.
Energy begins to accumulate in the beam and at a certain point, the beam is activated with the power given by this energy. After directing the beam to the optical surface, it goes to the lenses. The beam reflected from the lenses finally focuses on the material.
After the laser beams contact the metal, the material melts or evaporates from the contact points according to the chosen method. In addition, metal can be cut by thermal stretching, silicon fluidity or reactive cutting (combustion) methods.
Let's take a closer look at these methods:
Thermal Stretching: The laser beam heats the metal and causes expansion. Thus, cracks form on the surface and the material is cut.
Silicon Fluidity: Cutting the material using electronic chips is called silicon fluidity.
Reactive Cutting (Combustion): It is generally preferred for cutting thick steels. Better efficiency can be obtained while saving the laser beam used.
In the final stage, a special gas is sprayed by the machine and the part separated by the beam is ejected by gas power.
What are the Types of Laser Cutting CNC?
The types of laser CNC machines are linked to the type and requirements of the hardware integrated laser. Of course, the laser equipment used also changes the usage area of the product. In general, facilities equipped with Laser Cutting CNC equipment have almost all of these bits and can use different configurations for every need.
Laser Cutting CNC Types
CO2 Laser Cutting Machine
The CO2 Laser Cutting Machine, which produces beams by reacting carbon dioxide gas with high voltage electricity, can cut materials with less density, while operating at a low energy consumption level. For example, plastic materials, wood, glass and similar materials can be cut and shaped with this type of laser.
Neodymium Laser Cutting Machine
The laser cutting cnc machine, in which laser technology is used most powerfully, is the machine in which neodymium lasers are used. It is possible to cut very thick and highly resistant materials with very high intensity laser beams with these equipment. Metals, ceramics and similar dense products are cut with these machines.
Fiber Laser Cutting Machine
Fiber laser cutting machine is a type of laser developed by adding fiber to neodymium technology. This equipment, whose sensitivity can be adjusted finer and whose qualities such as density can be changed, is used more intensively in works that require fine workmanship. This hardware is commonly preferred when working on metal in more detail.
Where is CNC Laser Cutting Used?
Today, CNC laser cutting method is used in many places. The fact that it is a risk-free method and the machine performs the process alone, without the need for another machine, causes CNC laser cutting to be used frequently.
Laser cutting can be used in the following areas:
If there is a pattern that is desired to be embroidered on the material, it can be processed in a flawless and aesthetic way. It provides a great advantage especially in the production of decoration products.
It may be desired to mark the metal material. The brand name/logo can be easily engraved on metal with laser beams.
It is the first choice in cases where mass production is required. Industrial materials can be molded by laser cutting. Especially in the automotive sector, CNC laser cutting method is used in the production of spare parts.
If 3D cutting is required, excellent products can be obtained with CNC laser. Considering how important 3D material production is today, the importance of laser cutting will also emerge.
CNC machine can be used in the production of parts of other machines. Thus, machine parts are produced with low cost and high efficiency.
Stainless steel, which has a wide range of uses in various industries, is obtained with a special alloy. The production of steel with alloy makes the material more resistant to water and various external factors and prevents it from being damaged.
Despite the name 'stainless', stainless steel loses its strength at a certain point and remains susceptible to corrosion. So what are the causes of rusting of stainless steels? How can precautions be taken?
What Does Rusting Mean?
In its simplest form, rusting is the corrosion of metal or metal alloy materials. Once metals begin to rust, they slowly rot and eventually become unusable. Rust manifests itself in shades of red, orange and brown.
There are multiple reasons for rusting. If you wish, you can learn how to delay this situation by taking a look at the causes of rusting:
What Are the Causes of Rusting?
Metals such as steel enter into a chemical reaction when they encounter external factors. Rusting is actually a type of chemical combustion. This reaction is not visible to the naked eye and takes quite a long time to become noticeable.
The cause of chemical combustion, that is, oxidation, is the meeting of the oxygen in the water and air with the iron in the metals. As a result of this encounter, iron oxide emerges and corrosion begins.
Continuous contact of metal with water and prolonged exposure to the outside environment can accelerate the rusting process. Factors such as wind can also cause metals to rust faster. Metals used in environments such as the sea, pool, bathtub or shower are also prone to rust as they come into contact with water. Also, damp places invite rust.
The name stainless steel is used for types of steel that are resistant to oxidation. This type of steel is preferred in constructions because it is resistant to decay compared to ordinary steels. In addition, stainless steels are used in the automotive industry. It is widely used in the production of cutlery and in water installations.
How is it manufactured?
While producing stainless steel, various elements are added to the pure iron and the resistance of the iron is increased. For example, by combining elements such as silicon, chromium, nickel, nitrogen and carbon with iron, a special alloy is obtained and stainless steel emerges.
Among these elements, chromium has a special place. The more chromium is used in the production of stainless steel, the more the rust resistance of the steel increases. Chromium added to the iron creates a protective surface and protects the steel against external factors.
What Causes Stainless Steel to Rust?
Although alloy steels are stainless, in some cases they lose their durability. Below are the most important causes of oxidation of stainless steels:
* Quality of Alloy
We have said that the more chromium in a steel alloy, the more its stainless feature increases. Most of the time, not choosing the appropriate alloy for the area where the steel will be used causes the steel to rust. When choosing stainless steel, the conditions of the environment to be used should be taken into consideration and the appropriate chrome alloy should be preferred.
* Mixture is heterogeneous
Even if the content of the alloy is correct, inhomogeneity of the mixture, that is, in a heterogeneous structure, may cause corrosion. More effort is required for the elements in the alloy to mix well and obtain a homogeneous structure. Steel quickly rusts and rots if due attention is not paid to homogeneity in order to save costs.
* Errors made during heat treatment
If the heat treatment applied to the stainless steel is continued more than necessary, the protective layer of the steel will be damaged. Steel that loses its protective layer rusts and stains appear on it.
As we have said, rusting occurs when more than one element reacts and as a result, chemical combustion occurs. Using the wrong element during the production of stainless steel can cause the iron to react and the steel to rust.